Denise Park

Stephen Spiro


  • molecular & cell biology
  • gene expression
  • bacteria
  • stress responses
  • nitric oxide


Katherine Morales

Expert at a Glance

Stephen Spiro, Ph.D. School of Natural Sciences and Mathematics

Associate Professor
of Molecular & Cell Biology

Dr. Spiro is exploring the regulation of bacterial gene expression by environmental signals, and the consequences of gene regulation for the physiological adaptation to stress.

Spiro is particularly interested in nitric oxide (NO), a water-soluble free-radical gas that is toxic in biological systems. Cells in our immune system use the toxicity of NO in efforts to kill invading pathogens such as Salmonella. These bacteria and other intra-cellular pathogens are often able to resist phagocyte killing mechanisms. Spiro’s research provides insights into the mechanisms that bacteria use to detect and detoxify NO. Spiro received his Ph.D. in molecular biology and microbiology from the University of Sheffield in the U.K.


Updated: December 18, 2008